Chinese character history: understand “black, ink”, talk about the development of ancient ink making technology

2022-05-03 0 By

Ink is the ancient brush writing, painting indispensable articles.”Mo” is composed of black and earth, which is a meaning word. “Black” is a typical feature of ink.The production of ancient ink has a long history. We can see the inheritance and continuous innovation of ancient craftsmen from the development of ink making technology.”Black” glyph is as follows: understanding fit word, inflammation +, dark unknown day white.Above, is the ancient “chimney” word, both chimney, but also a window, the following “flame” flame on the fire, fire light.Night outside the sky is not clear, under the fire “inflammation” lighting dark.Original meaning: dark sky, dark sky, dark unknown, opposite to the day white.By extension for color black + soil book ink also.A black pigment for painting and calligraphy.Such as: “Xijing Miscellany” : Han Dynasty book order, servant chenglang, month to 隃 mi ink.Wei and Jin idle to millet burning tobacco, and pine coal for.In the early Tang Dynasty, Koryo Suigong pine ink.Song Xining leisure, Zhang Yu for royal ink, began to use smoke into musk deer, known as the dragon agent.Half a million years ago, human beings learned to use fire. From then on, they bid farewell to ignorance and embarked on the journey of civilization.Wood burning, over a period of time to become charcoal, carbon black contaminated with people’s bodies and items, not easy to wipe off.This phenomenon naturally attracted the attention of our ancestors.With the conscious use of carbon black, this was the origin of dyeing technology.Recipes for painting were used with primitive ink, including prehistoric painted pottery decorations, oracle bones from the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, bamboo and wood slips, recipes for painting.The use of carbon as a pigment has been found in archaeology.There are black patterns on the pottery of the Neolithic Age, as well as black marks on some calligraphy and paintings on the bones of the Shang Dynasty. After inspection by cultural relics workers, it is confirmed that these black are carbon black. Before the invention of artificial ink making, natural ink or semi-natural ink was generally used as writing materials.Ink was invented about later than the pen.Ink appeared in the Zhou Dynasty, and the term “ink” can be found in ancient books.If see “Zhuangzi” record: “The Emperor of Song and Yuan will draw, all history are to, bow and lick pen and ink.”For example, one of the five punishments of the Zhou Dynasty, the “ink”, is in the face of the prisoners on the ink.Long with black letters, make people suffer physical and mental humiliation.Ink rope (woodworking), ink turtle (divination) have also used ink.According to scholars’ research, there was no solid ink ingot in the Spring and Autumn Period. When needed, carbon black and glue were mixed together first, and the liquid ink belonged to the original ink.Around the end of the Warring States period, real ink appeared. Archaeological evidence of ink ingot from this period has been found.”Shugu calligraphy zuan” load: Western Zhou “Xing Yi began to make ink, word from black soil, soot, soil and so on.”Ancient writing, bamboo point lacquer, after grinding charcoal for juice and book, called graphite.The Qin and Han dynasties used pine smoke and tong coal to make ink.Now the earliest known smoke ink, in Hubei Yunmeng Sleep Hudi Qin tomb and Jiangling Fenghuang Shanxi Han tomb found.In 1975, a piece of ink ingot was unearthed from the Tomb of the Warring States period in Sleephudi, Yunmeng, Hubei.At the same time, there were ink-stained stone ink-stones and wooden tablets full of ink characters unearthed, which can be seen that ink-stones were used to grind ink.At that time, ink was small round blocks, not molded into ingot.Early solid inks were made from only carbon black and animal glue.To the Han Dynasty, finally began to appear artificial ink.During the Han Dynasty, the increasing use of paper greatly increased the demand for ink, which promoted the development of ink-making technology.The ink maker found that pine wood was suitable for carbon black. Pine wood is rich in rosin, which not only produces excellent carbon black, but also contains turpentine, which makes the ink have a natural aroma.This ink is made from pine tobacco, first kneading and later molded, and the ink is solid.According to the Eastern Han Dynasty Ying Shao “Han official Yi” records: “Shang Shu order, servant, cheng, Lang, the month to elk a big ink, elk a small ink.”Elk is located in qianyang County, Shaanxi Province, near zhongnan Mountain, where there are many pines on the right side of the mountain. It is very famous for the tobacco used to make ink.The quality of ink in the Wei, Jin, southern and Northern Dynasties was constantly improved.Qi Min Yao Shu, written by Jia Sixie in the Northern Wei Dynasty, was the first to describe the method of making ink, in which he wrote the first Chinese ink making technique, The Method of Combining ink.In tang Dynasty, the ink industry was prosperous, and the production technology was beneficial and famous workers emerged in large numbers.Xi Chao and his son, Xi Tinggui, both famous ink-makers in Yishui (now Yi County, Hebei Province), escaped the war and moved to a xi prefecture, Anhui province. Xi Chao and his son, Ting GUI, practiced ink again there. With Huangshan pine smoke as raw material, they improved the techniques of glue blending and tamping, and produced fine ink that was “rich in flesh and rich in substance, and as bright as lacquer”.Li Yu, the later emperor of the Southern Tang Dynasty, appreciated her and gave her the state surname, changed it to Li, and appointed Tinggui as an official in charge of ink affairs. Li Mo became famous all over the world.The craft characteristic of Li Mo is excellent fine material.They fired for raw material with ancient pine trees increased state quality the forger, the finest gamboge, horn, pearl, croton, jade crumbs, etc. To add material, coupled with colloid fastidious, processing also states must “thousand” spot, thus can make better ink, with “came to light, smell to jasmine, grinding to qing”, won the “gold easy li ink is hard to find” of reputation.Yi’s superb skills combined with the local rich natural resources and profound cultural traditions of Xi prefecture made the ink industry of Xi Prefecture flourish.Xi Prefecture was renamed Huizhou in the third year of Emperor Huizong xuanhe of the Song Dynasty (1121). From then on, the ink produced in Huizhou was referred to as Hui Ink, which has been passed down to this day.Song and Yuan dynasties, hui ink manufacturing technology innovation.It is mainly manifested in the creation of a new way to take lampblack as raw material. Because of its fine particle size, strong dispersion and good light absorption performance, the ink is dark and oily, and the quality is above pine smoke.Due to the addition of musk and other deodorant, can remove the odor of glue, add aroma;Adding gold foil can increase the brilliance of ink and improve the value of ink, so huizhou ink began to transition from practical articles to works of art.Pan Gu, an ink-maker in the Song Dynasty, was highly praised by Su Dongpo, Huang Valley and other painters.Ming Dynasty Cheng Jun room “Nu Wa sky” ink shao Ge Ming Dynasty, Cheng Jun Room, Fang Yu Lu and other trees a school, shexian and Xiuning two groups of ink, fight for odd win, the system of fine, more than 300 years ago, is still color.Ming Dynasty song Yingxing “Tiangong Kaiwu” a volume 16 “Danqing” chapter of the “Ink”, on the use of oil smoke, pine smoke to make ink has a detailed description.The raw materials of ink tobacco include tung oil, rape oil, soybean oil, lard, and pine;Pine accounts for nine tenths and the rest for one tenth.From the smoke to the final completion of production, which also through the glue, and agent, pestle and other processes, and a molding process.The engraving of ink mold is an important process and also an artistic creation process.The shape of ink is roughly square, rectangular, round, elliptic, irregular and so on.The ink mold is generally composed of six pieces: front, back, upper, lower, left and right, while the circular or idol-shaped ink mold only needs four or two plates.Built-in ink agent, close the hammer hit the finished product.The inscription is mostly engraved on the side, so that the ink mold can be easily replaced when reused.The appearance of ink is diverse, and can be divided into natural color ink, paint coat ink, gargle gold ink, paint edge ink.Song Zhao Yanwei “Cloud foot spread money” quoted Su Dongpo poem “Ouyang Jimo to oil fume ink two pills see rates each long inch xu play for small poems)” the window pick up light coal, Buddha’s account sweep Yu Fu.There is a passage in Cloud Lumanchao by Zhao Yanwei about the way of making ink by burning tung oil: During the latter’s use of filling water in a sink, setting up a bowl, burning tung oil and overlaying it with a bowl, using a special person to sweep the media and beef gum, knead the ink together very quickly, which is called oil smoke.”(” Yunlu Diffuse money” volume 10) Ming “Tiangong Kaiwu” recorded burning oil to take smoke law will be tung oil, clear oil or lard into the lamp lit, the lamp above the iron cover to collect smoke. Each skilled worker can be in charge of 200 oil 灴, action to be agile, otherwise the smoke is too old.Then use a goose feather brush to gently brush the oil smoke of the iron cover layer into the paper. This is first-class oil smoke, and the ink produced is beautiful and shiny. The oil smoke of the inner layer of the iron cover must be forcibly scraped off. Each kilogram of oil can scrape about one or two first-class oil smoke.Burning pine take smoke method on the ground by more than ten zhangs (1 zhangs = 33 meters) long long bamboo shed, paper and straw mat, bamboo shed and ground connection place, with mud seal. Bamboo shed their every other period of open – a smoke hole, bamboo huts PuTong brick flue. Cut take pine pine stem must be at the bottom of the drill hole, ignition roast trunk, incorporated in rosin flow, even a little residual rosin, burn out the forger, the quality is not good.Cut pine pile into the bamboo shed, from the front end of the bamboo shed ignition, burning for a few days, pine smoke from the front end of the bamboo shed to the back end of the diffuse, after cooling can be scraped into the bamboo shed pine smoke.The pine smoke scraped from the rear section of the bamboo tent is called “smooth smoke”, which is of the best quality and is used for high-quality ink; the middle section is second-class pine smoke, called “smooth smoke”, which is used as ordinary ink; the front section of the pine smoke is called “smooth smoke”, which is used for printing.) in the qing dynasty, mainly to “pure as the ink (ink) for appreciation and” hidden ink “(for collection or gifts) two aspects of development, become the fine arts and crafts. Can say, in the ink to join a wide variety of additives, become the one big characteristic of making ink technology in China. I am @ characters  valley Lord, welcome attention! Want to improve their ability of teaching Chinese characters!Please pay attention to this number, private message: 99